In order for language learners to practice listening and speaking there are a number of different types of pattern drills that can be used. Language teachers may use one or more than one pattern drill, depending on what patterns learners have to learn. In the following session “T” represents teacher and “S” represent student.

  1. Repetition drill. This drill is the simplest drill used in learning language patterns. It is used at the very beginning of language class. Language learners merely repeat what the teacher says or the tape recorder produces. This may be used for the presentation of new vocabulary and will be useful for pronunciation class.


T :I study in the morning

S1 : I study in the morning

T : I study in the afternoon

S2 : I study in the afternoon

T : I work in the morning

S3 : I work in the morning


  1. Subtitution drill. Language learners are required to replace one word with another. They may replace a word of the modal sentence with a pronoun, number, or gender and make some the necessary change.


T : john is cold

T : hungry

S2 : john is hungry

T : in the class

S2 : john is in the class

T : john and marry

S3 : john and marry are in the class


  1. Transformation drill. Language learners are required to change sentences from negative to positive, from positive to interogative, or from simple present tense to simple past tense, depending on the instruction from the teacher.


T : the book is new

S1 : is the book new?

T : we are in the class

S2 : are we in the class?


  1. Replacement drill. Language learners replace a noun with a pronoun. It is the same drill as the subtitution drill but it involves with a replacement.


T ; I like the book

S1 : I like it

T : I met the people in jakarta

S2 : I met thm in jakarta

T : john will come here

S3 : john will come here


  1. Response drill. Language learners respond to somebody’s sentence. In this drill the answers are patterned after the questions. This drill may involve “wh” questions or “yes/no” questions.


T1 : alice is  at school

T2 : where is alice?

T3 : at school


  1. Cued response drill. In this drill language learners are provide with a cue before or afther the question.


T : what did the man buy? (a book)

S : the man bought a book

T : who will help us? (his brother)

S : his brother will help us


  1. Rejoinder drill. It is similar to the cued response drill. In this drill language learners are given instruction of how to respond.


T : come to my house (be polite)

S : would you like to come to my house

T : your idea is not good (disagree)

S : I disagree with your idea


  1. Restatement. Language learners repharase an utterance and address it to somebody else, according to the content of the utterance


T : tell him where you live

S : I live at raden intan street no 5

T : ask her what she has for breakfast

S : what do you have for breakfast?


  1. Completion drill. Language learners are told to supply a missing word in a sentence or statement.


T : I bring my book and you bring…….

S : I bring my book and you bring your book

T : I have to solve……own problems

S : I have to solve own problems


  1. Expansion drill. Language learners build up a statement by adding a word or phrase.


T : matematics

S : we study mathematics

T : everyday

S : we study matemathics everyday


  1. Contraction drill. Language learners replacde a phrase or clause with a single word or shorter expressions


T : I didn’t mean to kill the bird

S : I didn’t meant it

T : don’t go to thar place

S : don’t go there


  1. Integration drill. Langugage learners combine two separate statements


T : which one do you think is true? The earth goes around the sun or the sun goes around the earth

S : I think the earth goes around the sun

T : I know that lady. She id a wearing a blue shirt

S : I know the lady wearing a blue shirt


  1. Translation drill. Language learners translate a sentence from therir mother tongue to the target language.


T : saya sangat senang buah-buahan

S : I like fruit very much

T : ada beberapa murid di kelas itu

S : there are some student in the class



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