The basic principles of CLL can be described in processes by which language learners acquire a foreign language. The processes can be considered as stages in language learning.
Stages in language counselor-client relationship from counselor dependency to independence
The client is completely dependent on the language counselor:
- First, he expresses o nly to the counselor and in his mother tongue what he/she wishes to say to the group. Each group member overhears this english exchange, but is not involved in it.
- The counselor then reflects these ideas back to the client in the foreign language in a warm, accepting tone, in simple language in phrases of five or siz words.
- The client turns to the group and presents his ideas in the foreign language. He has the counselor’s aid if he mispronounces r hesitates on a word or phrase.
This is the client’s maximum security stage.
- Same as above
- The client turns and begins to speak the foreign language directly to the group
- The counselor aids only as the client hesitates or turns for help. Therse small independent steps are signs of positive confidence and hope.
- The client speaks directly to the group in the foreign language. This resumes that the group has now acquired the ability to understand his simple phrases.
- Same as (3) above.
This presrmes the client’s greater confidence, independence and proportionate insight into the relationship of phrases, grammar and ideas. Translation is given only when a group member desires it.
- The client is now speaking freely and complexly in the foreign language. Presumes group’s understanding.
- The counselor directly intervenes in grammatical error, mispronouciation or where aid in complex expression is needed. The client is sufficiently secure to take correction
- Same as IV
- The counselor intervenes not only to offer correction but to add idioms and more elegant construction
- At this stage, the client can become counselor to group in stage I, II ,and III.
The five stages represent how language learners leave their dependency and come to their independence. The stages are the processed in which the knower and the learners interrelate. The relationship may involve either the teacher-knower as the understanding, sensitive counselor and the learners or with the other learners as cognitive counselor. The teacher as the knower may provide the conditions for the learners to acquire a foreign language and at the same time to be involved in learning to communicate with other people. These processes seem to be the response to a problem that language learners may get a high grade in learning a foreign language but are inadequate in communication (curran, 1977).
In stage I total dependency on language counselor (teacher). Ideas that are said in their mother tongue are translated in to a foreign language by the counselor. The counselor speak in the foreign language slowly and sensitively to the client. Even, the counselor speaks a word gy a word in order for the client to repeat the expressions in a comfortable way. This stage is considered as an embryonic involvement between knower and learner as “mother” and “child”. It is argued that in this stage the initial anxiety of language learners is ovecome by the security of the warm relationship between language teacher and language learners. Language learners begin to have a separate identiti by having their voices in the target language tape-recorded.
In stage II the client begins courage to make some attempts to speak in the foreign language as words or phrases from the counselor are picked up and retained. The counselor still helps the client when the client hesitates to speak and need help. This stage is also called self-assertion stage. In this stage language learners start to use simple phrases on their own with great personal stisfaction. The language learners pick up expressions that they have heard and use them as the beginning of their independence.
In stage III the client grows independence with mistakes that are corrected by the counselor. The counselor corrects the mistakes as long as the client needs to be corrected. The counselor does not have to correct the whole mistakes. Correcting the whole mistakes is not always wise for the client’s learning process. In this stage language learners are expected to communicate on his own unless they need help. They undergo a transformation into independence in the foreign language.
In stage IV the client begins to be independent to make their new expressions based on the available words and grammar. The client needs the counselor only for more difficult expressions and grammar. In this stage language learners feel independent in communication and find themselves insulted when they are corrected by the language teacher. When language learner have arrived at this stage, it is dfficult and even envrarrassing for the knower to offer any further knowledge by way of interruption, correction, addition, or better construction.
The last stage, stage V, is the stage of independence. The client makes free communication in the foreign language. The presence of the counselor only reinforces correctness and pronounciation. Even though language learners are independent, they still receive subtle improvements from language expert. Language learners of this stage can then become counselor to other less advanced language learners.
The whole stages how language learners acquire a foreign language may be simplifed into two main steps: investment and reflection (stevick, 1976: 126). In the investment phase, the learner comits himself/herself, as much as he is able and willing, as he/she engages in a conversation with other members of the learning community. Stage I, stage II and stage III seem to belong to the first step: investment, and stage IV and V to the second step: investment. In the reflection phase, the learner stands back and look at what he, as apart of the communith, has done in the investment phase. As he/she remains a member of the community.
In learning a foreign language learners need psychological requirements. In CLL the requirements for successful learning are collected under acronym SARD (Curran, 1976: 6), which can be explained as follows. S stands for scurity. Feeling security is essential in learning-teaching process. Unless knower and learners feel secure, they will find it difficult to enter into a successful learning-teaching process. A stand for attetion and aggression. Without attention language learners will not learn alanguage optimally. Inattetion is considered natural in CLL. Loss of attention is an indication that language learners lack involvement in learning a foreign language. The knower has to consider this condition positively; he/she has to provide variety in learning tasks in order to increase attention and promote learning. R stands for retention and felection. Retention is the final process of absorbing what is studied into oneself and being able to retrieve and use it later with ease. The process of absorbing is then followed by the second R, reflection. Language learners need to take a periode of selence to reflect what has been learned. D denotes discrimination. Language learners need to identify the sounds they are hearing, the meanings of the words they have learned and the grammatical usage. Withour conscious processes of discrimination language learners may think they know what they have learned when in fact they still do not.
Assumption about language and language learning
Different method have different assumptions about language and language learning or teaching. Some methods state the assumptions explicity and some others do not. In some methods the assumptions are implicitly stated. The assumptions of CLL are not purely assumptions about language and language learning as the method was not originally developed for language teaching. The assumptions of CLL are as more psychologically oriented statements about learning in general. The basic principle of counseling-learning have implicarions on language learning and language teaching. The following are the assumptions of CLL method from different sources.