The ALM has a relatively complete procedure of presenting language materials. The method has a set of procedures of teaching each language skill. The following is the first produce of teaching the target language. This procedure is set of the typical steps in teaching the target language through the ALM. Since the listening and speaking ability is the first skill to consider, the first produce of teaching is more related to listning and speaking ability (Huebemer, 1969: 17). The procedure can be as follows:
- The language teacher gives a brief summary of the content of the dialogue. The dialogue is not translate but equivalent translation of key phrases should be given in order for the language learners to comprehend the dialog.
- The language learners listen attentively while the teacher reads or recites the dialogue at normal speed several times. Gestures and facial expressions or dramatized actions should accompany the presentation.
- Repetition of each line by the language learners in chorus is the next step. Each sentence may be repeated a half dozens of times, depending on its length and on the alertness of the language learners. If the teacher detects an error, the offending learner is corrected and is asked to repeat the sentence. If many learners make the same errors, chours repetition and drill will be necessary.
- Repetition is continued with groups decreasing in size, that is, first the two halves of the class, then thirds, and then single rows or smaller groups. Groups can assume the speakers’ roles.
- Pairs of individual learners now go to the front of the classroom to act out the dialogue. By this time they should have memorized the text.
In teaching the target language dialogue plays an important role. Almost any language class begins with a dialogue. The following considerations are necessary to construct a good dialogue.
- The dialogue should be short.
- The dialogue should have not more than three roles
- The dialogue should contain repetition of new grammar.
- The context should be interesting for the language learners
- Previous vocabulary and grammar should be included in the dialogue.
Since the aim of the method is speaking ability, teaching through the ALM language teachers spend most of the time for speaking. However, experimentation with the method has showed that the method has certain disadvantages so that some factors ralated to speaking have to be considered (Huebener, 1969: 9):
- The primary aim of foreign language instruction in the schools has always been educational and cultural. The ability to speak fluenty is not acquired primarily in the classroom, but through much additional practice on the outside.
- Real conversation is difficult to achieve in the classroom because the time to develop it is difficult.
- Conversation must not be confused with oral practice. Conversation involves a free, spontaneous discussion by two or more persos of any topic of common interest. Part of its effectiveness is due to facial expression and gestures.
- Speaking ability is the most difficult phase of a foreign language to teach and to acquire.
- This ability is least likely to be retained, for it depends on constant practice.
- It is difficult to teach because it requires unusual resourcefulness, skill, and energy on the part of the teacher. No textbook can make up for the originality of an everyday life situation.
- Conversational competence depends essentially on an extnsive vocabulary, memorization of numerous speech pattern, and the automatic control of stress.
These disadvantages may not be serious problems if language teachers realize that learning also takes place outside the classrooms. Language teachers have to provide opportunities for language learners to practice using the foreign language after the class. Language teachers must be creative in providing learning resources and they have to keep monitoring the process of language learning. Without teacher’s attention, language learners will not optimally learn the target language. Language teachers are expected to be fluent in the target language, which seems to be a problem in rural places.
Besides the procedure of presenting a dialogue, which involves listening and speaking, the ALM suggests a procedure of listening. The following are the steps in listening (Huebener, 1969: 37).
- Motivation. An effort is made to arouse learrners’ interest the topic or presentation.
- Introduction. The situation or content is briefly described.
- Anticipation of difficulties. If there are any new words structures, these will be singled out or made clear.
- First listening. There record is played
- Check on difficulties. Some words and structures may still be incomprehensible to few learners. These are taken up at the point and clarified.
- Second listening. Again the tape is played without interruption
- Questions. Significant expressions, keywords and phrases or structures to be learned are used in questions
- Third listening
- Questions. The language teacher asks original, information question to test comprehension.