PROCEDURES OF DIRECT METHOD

As stated earlier, language teaching presented through the direct method may take different forms. No standardized procedure characterizes the method. Different people may develop their own procedures as long as the procedures are based on the principles of the method. Nowdays, there is not much literature related to the method even though still many people use techniques that can be classified under the principles of the method in teahing another language in the classroom. The principle procedure is that language is first introduced through the ear, and then reinforced through the eye and hand by reading and writing. The following procedure is adapted from Larsen-Freeman (2000: 26-28).

  1. Each student has a reading passage in front of him/her.
  2. The students are called on one by one and they read the text loudly.
  3. After the students finish reading the passage, they are asked in the target language if they have questions.
  4. The teacher answers the students’ question in the target language.
  5. The teacher works with the students on the pronunciation
  6. The teacher gives question to the students and the questions and statements are about the students in the classroom.
  7. The student make up their own questions and statements and direct them to other students in the classroom.
  8. The teacher instructs the students to turn to an exercise in the lesson which asks them to fill in the blanks.
  9. The students read a sentence out loud and supply the missing word as they are reading.
  10. The teacher asks the students to take out their notebooks and he/she gives them a dictation; the passage is about the topic that has been discussed.

Another way of teaching a language through the direct method is also suggested by Titone (cited in Richards and Rodgers, 2001: 12). This way is actually not a procedure but more as a set of techniques suggested by Berlitz, one of the American reformers who attempted to build a language teaching methodology based on the direct method. These techniques are still popular among language teachers even though these techniques are not arranged procedurally.

Never translate: demonstrate

Never explain: act

Never make speech: ask questions

Never imitate mistake: correct

Never speak with single words: use sentences

Never speak too much: make students speak much

Never speak the book: use your lesson plan

Never jump around: follow your plan

Never go too fast: keep the pace of the student

Never speak too slowly: speak normally

Never speak too quickly: speak naturally

Never speak too loudly: speak naturally

Never be impatient: take it easy

As stated earlier that there is no fixed procedure of the direct method. This causes confusion among language teachers; language teachers may argue that they have used the direct method in the class even though they may not have used it in a real sense. Refering to the concepts of approach, method and technique introduced by anthony, which has been discussed in chapter one (cited in Richards and Rodgers, 2001; 19), probably, the direct method is not real method since there is no overall plan or language teaching. The method only fefers to assumptions about language and language learning, and some techniques that have been developed from the assumptions. It is understandable since the method had been born long before the concept of method itself was introduced in 1963.

The birth of the direct method really contributed a great deal of improvement in teaching another language in the word. Because of the method language teaching gradually has swung from the teaching of grammar to teaching to communicate in the target language. The direct method is believed to be the first method that encourages language teachers to teach a second/foreign language by modeling first language learning. In this method grammar is taught inductively with no explanations of grammar rules, which is really an improvement in language teaching.

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