Curran does not profide explicitly the procedure of teaching a foreign language through CLL. Some practitioners in teaching foreign languages suggest different procedures (stevick, 1980, Stroingg, 1980, and Dutra, 1980, Larsen-freeman, 1986 and 2000). This part tells about the writer’s experience of being a student that took place at the school for international training, brattleboro, vermont, USA in 1987. Stevick taught Swahili, which is a foreign language to the writer. The teaching was meant to show how language learners learned a foreign language through CLL. The procedure introduced here was also adapted from Stevick work (1980: 149).
Stevick was the knower of Swihili language. He introduced and talked with the whole class in the evening afther his arrival from Hawaii. Some studens of maste of art in teaching at school for international training were chosen to be language learners in his Swahili class. In the following morning the knower began the class by reminding the students the first step in the procedure. This was considered important as the class would begin by recording the learners’ voices and this was not common in a language class. Like the student, the knower wore informal clothing without a tie, which is unusual for a guest speaker in united states. The unusual (but warm) informal opening of the class was later identified asestablishing security among the language learners.
Investment: making the recording
The 12 learners were seated on simple metal folding chairs arranged in a tight circle. The other students of the program were standing outside the circle, watching the class. On the floor in the center of the circle was a cassete tape recorder with a start-stop switch on microphone. The knower was outside the circle. The knower said that the class would continue for about 1 minutes. The knower said that the learners who had something to say signaled that fac by raising his/her hand and taking the microphone in his/her hand. The learners talked one another and said something in english. Then, the knower wen and stood behind his/her, placing his hands lightly on his/her arms just below the shoulder, and his face about four inches from his/her left ear. When a learner said something in english. The knower spoke loudly equivalent expressions in swahili language. The knower spoked loudly enough for the other language learners. The learner repeated the knower’s expressions. Some learners could not repeat the whole expressions and the knower spoke the expressions into chunks. After a learner was sure that he/she could speak the expressions, the learners turned on the tape recorder when he/she spoke. Some learners recorded the expressions by chunks as they could not remember the whole expressions. The knower spoke a part of the expressions and they spoke the part and recorded it. By doing this way, the recording was entirely the voices of the learners and entirely in the target language.
Reflection: listening to the tape and writing the conversation down.
The knower and learners then listened to the tape, once without interruption, and once stopping after each sentence for the learners to recall the general meaning of the sentence. Then, the knower and learner played the tape again and the knower wrote down on blackboard. The knower put english literal translation under the swahili expression. The knower did not want the learners to make a copy of the written expressions.
Descrimination: passive listening and writing sentences
The knower then read the sentences and asked the learners not to read the written expressions on the blackboard. The knower read each sentence three times. First, he read every word and literally translated the word into english. The second reading was animated and read as in actual conversation. The third reading was read in positive and optimistic tone of voice. The learners were divided into groups of three and they were asked to make their own sentences in swahili based on the sentences they have learned.
After a break, the knower told the learners that he was going to talk to them in swahili for a few minutes. It was a monologue and there would be no questions and answers between the knower and learners. Following the monologue, there was a long silence and the learners began telling what the knower said and the knower confirmed or discofirmed what the learners guessed.
The process of language teaching above may be summarized in a simple procedure as presented in a firs day of CLL class by Dieter Stroinigg (in Stevick 1980: 185-6)
- The class begins with an informal meeting and everyone introduces himself or herself.
- The knower makes a statement of the goal and guidelines for the course.
- They form a circle so that everyone has visual contact with one another and everyone is within easy reach of the microphone of a tape recorder.
- A volunteer student initiates conversation with other students by giving a message in their mother tongue.
- The knower goes and stand behind the student, whispes an equivalent translation of the message in the target language.
- The student repeats the message that has been translated into the target language and record his expressions in a tape recorder.
- Each student in the group has a chance to express his/her message and record them.
- The knower always stands behind the students who are saying their statements and translate their message in the target language.
- The tape recorder is rewound and replayed at intervals.
- Each student repeats his message in the target language.
- The knower choose sentences to write on the blackboard that highlight some elements of language, such as grammar, vocabulary (traslation) or pronunciation.
- The students may ask questions about any of the elements discussed.
- The knower encourages the students to copy sentences from the blackboard including the translation in their mother tongue. The copy becomes their textbook for home study.